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Ancient Woodland Indicator Species

Species indicative of ancient woodland found in County Durham include:

Herbaceous Plants

  • Barren strawberry - Potentilla sterilis
  • Bluebell - Hyacinthoides no-scriptus
  • Bugle - Ajuga reptans
  • Common cow-wheat - Melampyrum pratense
  • Common dog violet - Viola reichenbachiana
  • Dog's Mercury - Mercurialis perennis
  • Early purple orchid - Orchis mascula
  • Enchanter's nightshade - Circaea lutetiana
  • Goldilocks buttercup - Ranunculus auricomus
  • Great bell flower - Campanula latifolia
  • Heath bedstraw - Galium saxatile
  • Herb paris - Paris quadrifolia
  • Herb-robert - Geranium robertianum
  • Lords-and-ladies - Arum maculatum
  • Moschatel - Adoxa moschatellina
  • Pignut - Conopodium majus
  • Primrose - Primula vulgaris
  • Ramsons - Allium ursinum
  • Sanicle - Sanicula europaea
  • Small cow-wheat - Melampyrum sylvaticum
  • Sweet violet - Viola odorata
  • Toothwort - Lathraea squamaria
  • Tormentil - Potentilla erecta
  • Wild strawberry - Fragaria vesca
  • Wood anemone - Anemone nemorosa
  • Wood Avens - Geum urbanum
  • Wood horsetail - Equisetum sylvaticum
  • Wood sage - Teucrium scorodonia
  • Wood sorrel - Oxalis acetosella
  • Wood speedwell - Veronica montana
  • Wood spurge - Euphorbia amygdaloides
  • Woodruff - Galium odoratum
  • Yellow archangel - Lamiastrum galeobdolon
  • Yellow pimpernel - Lysimachia nemorum

Grasses

  • Giant fescue - Festuca gigantea
  • Hairy brome - Bromus ramosus
  • Wood false-brome - Brachypodium sylvaticum
  • Wood meadow-grass - Poa nemoralis
  • Wood melick - Melica uniflora
  • Wood millet - Millium effusum

Rushes and Sedges

  • Greater woodrush - Luzula sylvatica
  • Hairy woodrush - Luzula pilosa
  • Wood sedge - Carex sylvatica

Ferns and Horsetails

  • Broad buckler fern - Dryopteris dilatata
  • Hard fern - Blechnum spicant
  • Hard shield fern - Polystichum aculeatum
  • Hart's tongue - Asplenium scolopendrium
  • Lady fern - Athyrium filix-femina
  • Male fern - Dryopteris filix-mas
  • Narrow buckler fern - Dryopteris carthusiana
  • Scaly male-fern - Dryopteris affinis
  • Soft shield fern - Polystichum settiferum
  • Wood horsetail - Equisetum sylvaticum